2. Basis of preparation

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and IFRIC interpretations as adopted by the European Union.

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis, except for financial instruments (including derivatives) classified at fair value through profit or loss and derivatives used for hedging, which are stated at fair value.

Income and expenses are accounted for on an accrual basis.

Summary of significant accounting policy

The general accounting policies applied to the consolidated financial statements as a whole are described below, while other significant accounting policies related to specific line items are described under the relevant note. The description of accounting policy in the notes forms an integral part of the description of the accounting policies in this section. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

New accounting standards and developments

The following standards that are effective from 1 January 2014 have been adopted earlier by the group as from 1 January 2013:

  1. IFRS 10 'Consolidated financial statements'
  2. IFRS 11 'Joint arrangements'
  3. IFRS 12 'Disclosures of interests in other entities'
  4. IFRS 13 'Fair value measurement'
  5. IAS28R 'Investments in Associates'

Other than certain additional disclosures, all the abovementioned standards had no material impact on the recognition and measurement of the group's assets, liabilities, income and expenses. All other standards and interpretations issued and effective for the reporting period starting 1 January 2014 did not have a material impact on the group.

All IFRS standards and interpretations that were in issue but not yet effective for reporting periods beginning on 1 January 2014 have not yet been adopted.

Basis of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the company and entities controlled by the company (and its subsidiaries). Control is achieved when the parent is exposed to, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting policy in line with the group. All intercompany transactions, balances and unrealised gains and losses on transactions between group companies are eliminated.

Foreign currencies

The company's primary activities are denominated in euros. Accordingly, the euro is the company's functional currency, which is also the group's presentation currency. Items included in the financial information of individual entities in the group are measured using the individual entity's functional currency, which is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates.

Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At each balance sheet date, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.

Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement, except when deferred in equity as qualifying cash flow hedges. Foreign exchange gains and losses are presented under 'Other financial result' in the income statement.

Group companies

For consolidation purposes, the assets and liabilities of entities that have a functional currency other than the group's presentation currency are translated at the closing rate at the date of the balance sheet, whereas the income statement is translated at the average exchange rate for the period. Translation differences arising thereon are recognised in 'Other comprehensive income'.

Cash flow statements

Cash flow statements are prepared using the indirect method. Cash flows from derivative instruments are classified consistently with the nature of the instrument.